JavaScript: Keyword “extends”

By Xah Lee. Date: . Last updated: .

New in JS2015.

The extends keyword is used together with the class. It creates a constructor function. And, automatically creates 2 parent/child relationships.

[see Class]

Basic Example

First, here's a typical example of using extends.

// create a class
class A {
    constructor(x) {
        console.log( "A constructor called with " + x );
        this.k1 = x;

    f () { console.log( "f called" ) }


class B extends A {

    // adding a property in constructor
    constructor(x,y) {
        console.log( `B constructor called with ${x} ${y}` );
        super( x ); // calls A's constructor
        this.k2 = y; // add its own property

    // add a method g
    g () { console.log( "g called" ) }

const b = new B(3,4);
// prints
// B constructor called with 3 4
// A constructor called with 3

console.log( b ); // B { k1: 3, k2: 4 }

b.f(); // prints: f called
b.g(); // prints: g called

// this works because
// parent of b is B.prototype, which contains function g
// parent of B.prototype is A.prototype, which contains function f
// by inheritance, b has access to both g and f

[see Class]

“extends” Syntax

class B extends A {body}

The A on the right side must be a constructor (or null). Typically, it should be a function object defined by keyword class or function, or builtin constructor object such as Array, Date, etc.

[see JavaScript Object Reference]

What Does “extends” Do Exactly?

When you have

class B extends A {body}

Basically the following happens:

  1. Run class B {body}.
  2. Make the parent of B to be A.
  3. Make the parent of B.prototype to be A.prototype.
// create a class
class A {}

// extend it
class B extends A {}

// parent of B is A
console.log( Reflect.getPrototypeOf ( B ) === A );

// parent of B.prototype is A.prototype
console.log( Reflect.getPrototypeOf ( B.prototype ) === A.prototype );

Extend a Class with Constructor

Default constructor for base class is constructor() {}

Default constructor for derived class is constructor() { super(); }

When you extend a class, and if you create a new constructor, you must call the base class constructor first, by the syntax super().

Keyword “super”

Keyword “super”

JavaScript Constructor/Class

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JavaScript in Depth

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