JavaScript: Destructuring Assignment

By Xah Lee. Date: . Last updated: .

New in JS2015.

Destructuring Assignment lets you assign values in a array or object to variables, in a convenient way.

Syntax

let [x,y] = [3,4];
x is 3, y is 4.
let [x,,z] = [3,4,5];
x is 3, z is 5.
let [x=9, y=10] = [3,4];
with default for each slot. (if right-hand-side has less items)
let [a,b,...c] = [1,2,3,4,5];
a is 1, b is 2, c is [3,4,5]
let [...y] = [1,2,3,4,5];
y is [1,2,3,4,5]
let [,...y] = [1,2,3,4,5];
y is [2,3,4,5]
let {b: x} = {a:1, b:2, c:3 };
x is 2
let {d: x = 9} = {a:1, b:2, c:3 };
x is 9
let {a,b,c} = {a:1, b:2, c:3 };
a is 1, b is 2, c is 3. Order need not match.
let {b} = {a:1, b:2, c:3 };
b is 2
let {c, b:[x,y]} = {a:1, b:[2,4], c:3 };
c is 3, x is 2, y is 4
let { c, ...restProperties } = { a:1, b:2, c:3 };
New in JS2018. c is 3. restProperties is { a:1, b:2 }

Destructure Array Examples

For example, let [a, b, c] = [3,4,6];.

let [a, b, c] = [3, 4, 6];
console.log(a, b, c); // 3 4 6

Destructure nested array:

let [a, [b], c] = [3, [4], 6];
console.log(a, b, c); // 3 4 6

Destructure array, skip elements:

let [a, , c] = [1, 2, 3, 4];
console.log(a, c); // 1 3

Destructure array of unknown length. Capture rest elements as a array:

let [a, b, ...c] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
console.log(a, b, c); // 1 2 [3,4,5]
let [, ...x] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
console.log(x); // [2,3,4,5]
let [...y] = [1, 2, 3, 4];
console.log(y); // [1,2,3,4]

If there are more variables than array element, any extra variable has value of undefined.

// destructuring assignment, more variable than array element
let [a,b] = [2];
console.log(a); // 2
console.log(b); // undefined

With default values:

// destructuring assignment, with default values
let [a,b=3] = [2];
console.log(a); // 2
console.log(b); // 3

Destructure Object Examples

let {b: var_name} = {a:1, b:2, c:3};

// let x be the value of key b
let {b: x} = {a:1, b:2, c:3 };
console.log( x ); // 2

With default value:

// let x be the value of key d. If it doesn't exist, default to 9
let {d: x = 9} = {a:1, b:2, c:3 };
console.log( x ); // 9

Key names as variable names.

let {b} = {a:1, b:2, c:3};

// using key names as var names
let {a,b,c} = {a:1, b:2, c:3 };
console.log( a, b, c ); // 1 2 3
// extract key
let {b} = {a:1, b:2, c:3 };
console.log( b ); // 2

Destructure with rest properties:

// destructure object with rest keys
let { c, ...restProperties } = { a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 };
console.log(c); // 3
console.log(restProperties); // { a: 1, b: 2 }

Destructure nested array and object example:

// destructuring nested array/object
let {c, b:[x,y]} = {a:1, b:[2,4], c:3 };
console.log(c); // 3
console.log(x); // 2
console.log(y); // 4

Destructure Function Arguments

Function Argument Destructure

JavaScript variable

βˆ‘ JS in Depth
XAH Β BUY NOW

JS in Depth

JS Obj Ref

DOM


JS in Depth

Basic Syntax

Value Types

Variable

String

Function

Property

Object and Inheritance

Array

Constructor/Class

Iterable 🌟

Misc