JS: Template String

By Xah Lee. Date: . Last updated: .

New in ES2015.

String can be enclosed by the character ` (U+60: GRAVE ACCENT) , like this:

console.log(`How are you?`);

When string is enclosed by GRAVE ACCENT, any ${…} inside will be evaluated and result inserted into the string.

// template string example
    `two plus three is ${2+3}`
); // two plus three is 5

Template string allows you to easily create “templates” by embedding expressions. This programing language feature is sometimes known as interpolation, in Perl, Ruby, PHP.

The ${…} is called place-holder, or substitution string.

Here's a example with embedded variable:

// variable interpolation inside template string

var x = 76;

    `You have ${x} points.`
); // You have 76 points.

Literal newline character is allowed:

// template string allow literal newline
var x = `aa

// prints in 2 lines

Escape Characters

If you want to include a ` in a template string, you can escape it by backslash, like this \`.

// escape grave mark in template string
); // prints a`b

You can also escape ${…} by \${…} or $\{…}.

// escape the expression part in template string

var x = 2;

console.log(`${x}`); // prints 2

console.log(`\${x}`); // prints ${x}

console.log(`$\{x}`); // prints ${x}

When the expression is a object, its .toString() method is used to convert it to string. (or, with inheritance up to Object.toString()) 〔►see JS: Prototype and Inheritance

Nest Template String

Template string can be nested.

// nested template string

var x = "B";

    `wow ${`A${x}C`}`
); // wow ABC

Tagged Template String

〔►see JS: Tagged Template String


ECMAScript 2015 §ECMAScript Language: Lexical Grammar#sec-template-literal-lexical-components

ECMAScript 2015 §ECMAScript Language: Expressions#sec-template-literals

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