Abacus. Used in China and Japan, even today. There are 2 styles. Chinese and Japan style.
Chinese style abacus has 2 rows at top, and 5 rows at bottow. This allows use with a hexadecimal numeral system (or any base up to 18).
The default position is away from the middle horizontal bar. Each bead positioned close to the horizontal bar counts a value. For bottom section beads, each bead counts as 1. For top section beads, each bead counts as 5.
Japanese Style Abacus
The Japanese style abacus has 1 row at top, 4 rows at bottom. For top section beads, each bead counts as 5. For bottom section beads, each bead counts as 1.
When i was in school aged around 9 (that's 1970s), abacus is still taught in school at Taiwan. And, there are TV shows of competition between students using abacus versus students using electronic calculator.