Golang: Struct

By Xah Lee. Date: . Last updated: .

Struct is user-defined type. It defines a collection of “fields”, each field is a name and a value of a specific type.

Struct is similar to golang map, except that number of keys and key names are fixed.

Once you defined a struct type (with a given name), you can create struct of that name.

Note, struct is very important in golang. Because “object oriented programing”'s concept of interface and methods, are based on it.

Define a New Struct Type

Here's how to define a struct.

type Name struct { name1 type1 name2 type2 … }

here's how to create a struct you just defined:

Name{name1:val1, name2:val2 …}

or

Name{val1, val2 …}

package main

import "fmt"

// define a struct named PP
type PP struct {
	x int
	y int
}

func main() {
	// create a struct PP
	var x PP = PP{1, 2}

	// print struct with value only
	fmt.Printf("%v\n", x) // {1, 2}

	// print struct with field name and value
	fmt.Printf("%+v\n", x) // {x:1 y:2}
}

Create Struct: Struct Literals

A struct literal lets you create a value of a given struct type.

For example, if you have this struct type

type PP struct{ x, y int }

you can create a value by

var p1 = PP{x:3, y:4}

or

var p1 = PP{}

and use PP.x=3 etc to fill the field values later.

package main

import "fmt"

// define a struct type
type PP struct{ x, y int }

func main() {

	// create a struct of PP
	var p1 = PP{x: 3, y: 4}

	fmt.Printf("%#v\n", p1) // main.PP{x:3, y:4}

}

If a key is omitted, it defaults to its zero value.

[see Zero Value]

package main

import "fmt"

type PP struct{ x, y int }

func main() {
	var p1 = PP{y: 4}
	fmt.Printf("%#v\n", p1) // main.PP{x:0, y:4}
}

Alternatively, you can omit keys and only use values.

var p1 = PP{3, 4}

If you omit keys, you must omit all keys, and the order must be the same order as in the struct definition.

package main

import "fmt"

type PP struct{ x, y int }

func main() {
	var tt = PP{3, 4}
	fmt.Printf("%#v\n", tt) // main.PP{x:3, y:4}
}

Get/Set Field Value

Struct fields are accessed using a dot.

package main

import "fmt"

type PP struct {
	x int
	y int
}

func main() {

	v := PP{3, 4}

	// get a field value
	fmt.Println(v.x) // 3

	// set a field value
	v.x = 4
	fmt.Println(v.x) // 4
}

Print Struct

package main

import "fmt"

// using print struct

func main() {

	type PP struct {
		x int
		y int
	}

	var stc = PP{1, 2}
	fmt.Printf("%T\n", stc)  // main.PP
	fmt.Printf("%v\n", stc)  // {1 2}
	fmt.Printf("%+v\n", stc) // {x:1 y:2}
	fmt.Printf("%#v\n", stc) // main.PP{x:1, y:2}
}

Reference

The Go Programming Language Specification - The Go Programming Language#Struct_types

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Golang

  1. Compile, Run
  2. Source Encoding
  3. Package, Import
  4. Comment
  5. Print
  6. String
  7. Print String
  8. String Backslash Escape
  9. Rune
  10. Variable
  11. Zero Value
  12. Constant
  13. If Then Else
  14. Switch/Case
  15. Loop
  16. Basic Types
  17. Array
  18. Slice
  19. Map
  20. Struct
  21. Function
  22. Closure
  23. Pointer
  24. String, Byte Slice, Rune Slice
  25. regexp
  26. Read File
  27. Write to File
  28. Walk Dir
  29. Check File Exist
  30. System Call
  31. Get Script Path
  32. Defer
  33. Random Number

Examples

  1. Match Any Regexp
  2. Find Replace
  3. Validate Links
  4. Generate Sitemap

Reference

  1. Go Spec