M. C. Escher (1898 – 1972) is a Dutch artist whose works are strongly mathematical.
Some are mathematical images of tilings, recursion, infinity, reflection, geometric process.
Others illustrate the concepts of the above.
While still others exploit illusion and human perception to illustrate the above subjects.
Here's two of his art collections, highly recommended:
M C Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work amazon
Visions of Symmetry : Notebooks, Periodic Drawings, and Related Work of M C Escher by Doris Schattschneider. This work collects Escher's tiling/symmetry works. amazon