JavaScript: Method Chaining and Function Composition

By Xah Lee. Date: . Last updated: .

In JavaScript, we can do method chaining. That is, the dotted syntax:


This works because:

  1. the value of x is a object and has a method f.
  2. the value of x.f() is a object and has a method f2.
  3. the value of x.f().f2() is a object and has a method f3.

If you want to write a library that allow method chaining, just make sure your methods all return the same object X of your lib, and all the methods are properties of X.

Method chaining can be considered as a postfix notation. For example, similar to unix pipe x | f | f2 | f3.

The problem with method chaining is that it relies on the fact that the preceding sequence must return a object that has the next method as property.

You cannot chain functions A and B with the dot notation if A and B has no object/property relation.

However, you can write a function that does this.

Postfix Function Composition

Here's a way to chain and functions x f1 f2 f3 etc, without them being a property of the return object.

  1. postfixChain(x,f) → f(x)
  2. postfixChain(x,f,f2) → f2(f(x))
  3. postfixChain(x,f,f2,f3) → f3(f2(f(x)))

Here's the code.

function postfixChain () {
    // postfixChain(x,f) → f(x)
    // postfixChain(x,f,f2) → f2(f(x))
    // postfixChain(x,f,f2,f3) → f3(f2(f(x)))
    // etc

    // version 2016-05-02
    var ff =;
    while (arguments.length > 0) {
        ff = (;
    return ff;

// -------------------------------
// test

function ea (x) { return x + "a"; }
function eb (x) { return x + "b"; }
function ec (x) { return x + "c"; }

console.log( postfixChain("0",ea,eb,ec) ); // prints "0abc"

see also JavaScript: Functional Programing

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