# Emacs Lisp: Map List/Vector

## Map: mapcar

Typical way to go thru a
Sequence
is using `mapcar`

. Note that it returns a list, even if input is a vector.

`(mapcar`

`FUNCTION``SEQUENCE`)-
Apply
`FUNCTION`to each element of`SEQUENCE`, and make a list of the results. The result is a list, with same length as`SEQUENCE`.`SEQUENCE`may be a list, a vector, a bool-vector, or a string.

;; add 1 to each vector element (mapcar '1+ [3 4 5] ) ; (4 5 6)

;; add one to each list element (mapcar '1+ '(3 4 5)) ; (4 5 6)

`1+`

is a lisp function. It adds 1 to argument and returns it. For example, `(1+ 2)`

returns 3.

To use a function in `mapcar`

, you need to quote the function's name.

`1+`

is a function, so we quote it and have
`'1+`

or
`(quote 1+)`

Here's another example.

; take the 1st element of each (mapcar 'car '((1 2) (3 4) (5 6))) ; (1 3 5)

## mapcar with lambda

mapcar is most commonly used with lambda. Here's a example:

;; get first element of each row (mapcar (lambda (x) (elt x 0)) [[1 2] [3 4]] ) ; ⇒ (1 3)

`lambda`

means function, often known as “anonymous function”. It let you define a function in the middle of your code.

The form is `(lambda (`

.`args`) `body`)

For example, `(lambda (x y) (+ x y))`

is a function that takes two arguments, x and y, and returns their sum.

More examples with lambda:

; add one to each list member (mapcar (lambda (x) (+ x 1)) (list 1 2 3 4) ) ; (2 3 4 5)

;; take the 2nd element of each (mapcar (lambda (x) (nth 1 x)) '((1 2) (3 4) (5 6))) ; (2 4 6)

## mapc (foreach)

If you don't need map to return the sequence, use `mapc`

.

`mapc`

is like `mapcar`

, but returns `nil`.

;; apply a file processing function to a list of files (mapc 'my-update-html-footer (list "~/file1.html" "~/file2.html" "~/file3.html" ))

;; example of mapc on vector (mapc (lambda (x) (insert (number-to-string (aref x 0)))) [[1 2] [3 4]] ) ;; insert first element of each row into buffer ;; (it inserts 13) ;; returns nil

## Loop Thru a List (dolist)

`(dolist (`

`VAR``LIST`)`BODY`)-
Loop over a list. Evaluate
`BODY`with`VAR`bound to each element from`LIST`, returns`nil`. `(dolist (`

`VAR``LIST``RESULT`)`BODY`)-
returns
`RESULT`.

(let ( (xlist (number-sequence 97 122)) ;; list 97 to 122 ) (dolist (n xlist) (insert n))) ;; inserts ;; abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

The major difference between
`dolist`

and
`mapc`

is that
`dolist`

uses expression,
`mapc`

uses a function.
Also, `dolist`

work with list only,
`mapc`

works with list and vectors.

## Loop Fixed Number of Times (dotimes)

`dotimes`

is useful when you want to go thru a list by a increasing index.

`(dotimes (`

`VAR``COUNT`)`BODY`)-
Loop a certain number of times. Evaluate
`BODY`with`VAR`bound to successive integers running from 0, inclusive, to`COUNT`, exclusive. Returns`nil` `(dotimes (`

`VAR``COUNT``RESULT`)`BODY`)-
After loop, evaluate
`RESULT`to get the return value.

(dotimes (i 4) (insert (number-to-string i))) ;; inserts "0123", returns nil

(let ((v [3 4 5])) (dotimes (i (length v)) (insert (number-to-string (elt v i))))) ; inserts 345

## while Loop

Another common form to loop thru a list is using the `while`

function. In each iteration, `pop`

is used to reduce the list.

(let ((mylist '(a b c))) (while mylist (message "%s" (pop mylist)) (sleep-for 1)))

Example with vector:

(setq v [3 4 5]) (setq i 0) (while (< i (length v)) (insert (format "%d" (elt v i))) (setq i (1+ i))) ; inserts "345"

## Exit Loop/Function, catch/throw

Emacs Lisp: throw, catch, exit function