Linux: Keyboard Software Guide

By Xah Lee. Date: . Last updated: .

This page is a overview of how to create keyboard shortcuts, how to remap/swap keys, how to change keyboard layout.

Get a Programable Keyboard

The best solution is to get a programable keyboard, especially on linux.

Overview of Linux Key Programing

In Linux, there are 2 steps to create keyboard shortcuts:

  1. Action: A shell command that does something, for example, switch/close window, simulate key press, mouse click, launch app, open file, empty trash.
  2. Bind Key: Make a key press run a shell command/script.

Keybinding Using System Settings Graphical User Interface App

The most easy way to add a new keyboard shortcut or keyboard layout, is the system control panel in a graphical user interface (available in any of the Gnome, KDE, Ubuntu, Xfce, LXDE). Under the system control panel (aka Setting Manager or System Preference), usually there are apps named Window Manager, or Keyboard, or Keyboard Layout.

xfce window manager keys setup  2013-06-07
xfce window manager keys setup

The window manager typically lets you set keys related to manipulating windows, such as {switch, close, max/min, move, show/hide/iconify}, or switch workspace (aka virtual screen), etc.

xfce keyboard setting panel 2013-06-01
xfce keyboard setting panel

The keyboard setting tool typically lets you set a key to launch app, or run a shell script. But it cannot swap keys nor set a key to send key combo such as Ctrl+s.

Swapping Keys, Remap Keys


xmodmap is a simple tool that lets you remap/swap keys for apps running under X11.

Scancode, Keycode, Keysym

How to set system keyboard layout?

Keybinding in linux can be divided into 2 layers: the X11 window system layer, or system level.

Many keybinding setup works in X11 only. For example, when in Linux: Virtual Terminal or single user mode console or system startup console, your custome key setting won't kick in.

The letter layout, is usually in the system layer. (but it can also be X11 layer only too.)

[see Linux: Set System Keyboard Layout]

Tool to Bind Key


If your desktop doesn't have a graphical user interface settings app to bind a key to launch a script, then you can use xbindkeys.

[see Linux: xbindkeys Tutorial]

Tool for Key Actions

wmctrl for Switch Windows

wmctrl is a command line tool to {switch, close, move, resize, set title, list, …} windows.

Linux: Add Keyboard Shortcut to Switch App

xvkbd for Sending Keychords

xvkbd is a virtual keyboard for X window system. It is useful as a shell command to send keys.

Linux: xvkbd tutorial

Linux: Control Sound Level by Command Line

Linux: Change Volume by Command


xdotool. «programatically simulate keyboard input and mouse activity. It does this using X11's XTEST extension and other Xlib functions.»

(note: i tried xdotool under Ubuntu/xfce. Doesn't work in my first 30 min of looking into it.)

#Install xdotool
 sudo apt-get install xdotool

Example. Send Ctrl+w to close tab.

xdotool key --delay 40 Control_L+w

Example. Click on upper left corner, (90, 10) pixels.

xdotool mousemove 90 10 click 1


“Generic Linux command-line automation tool (no X!)”

(2021-02-16 note: i haven't used ydotool.)



(2021-02-16 note: i haven't used AutoKey.)

Other Keyboard Tools


KMonad lets you map any keyboard button to any keymap. Want to swap the useless Caps Lock key with the Escape key? Want to have your modifiers such as Shift and Control on your home row, without breaking your normal typing flow? Want a modifier that is combination of Alt + Ctrl + Super + Shift?

Kmonad chen xu 2023-03-09
Kmonad chen xu 2023-03-09


xkeysnail is yet another keyboard remapping tool for X environment written in Python. It's like xmodmap but allows more flexible remappings.

Has high-level and flexible remapping mechanisms, such as

Runs in low-level layer (evdev and uinput), making remapping work in almost all the places

xkeysnail is new around 2015. I never tried.

xcape (Space Bar as Dual Key)


Linux tool to configure modifier keys to act as other keys when pressed and released on their own.

IMWheel (Customize Mouse Wheel)

IMWheel let you set mouse wheel behavior.