Keyboard Firmware

By Xah Lee. Date: . Last updated: .

Things you need to know when shopping for a gaming keyboard or programable keyboard.

Firmware is software that's in the keyboard's memory. It controls the device.

All keyboards have firmware. The basic ones just send standard signals of the key when it is pressed.

Examples of Firmware Capabilities

Programable keyboards have firmware that can be updated or configured.

Here's list of what firmware can do:

• Remap keys for letter layout. Set any key to send any other key. For example, create different layouts, such as Dvorak, Colemak.

〔►see Alternative Keyboard Layouts

• Remap special keys. For example, make Caps Lock send Ctrl, or swap Alt and Ctrl.

• Create custom dead keys or Compose key. For example, press 【⎄ Compose ' e】 to insert é.

〔►see Keyboard: Alt Graph Key, Compose Key, Dead Key

• Make a key send other key combinations. For example, make F2 send Ctrl+c (that's “copy” for most apps.)

• Make a key as special modifier. For example, when Fn is held down, right hand home row keys become arrow keys.

• Create a lock key . For example, when Caps Lock is pressed, right hand's keys become number pad keys. When Caps Lock is pressed again, the lock is released.

• Create key macro. For example, For example, make F1 send a key sequence of single keys or combination with modifier. Useful for video games or professional tasks (in image editor, word processor, video editor, etc.).

• Make a key's behavior depends on whether it's held. For example, Space act as both space and Ctrl. When pressed and released by itself, it's space, but when held and pressing another key, it acts as Ctrl.

Note: not all programable keyboard has all these capabilities.

Advantage of Firmware over OS Level Keymapping

• Plug the keyboard in any computer or operating system and it'll work 100% as you configured it. No need to install extra “driver” software.

• Key mapping via firmware is reliable. Because the keyboard sends the desired keycode directly to operating system.

For example, say you want Caps Lock to send Ctrl. With firmware, the Caps Lock sends Ctrl directly to operating system.

With key remapping software in OS, the keyboard still sends Caps Lock signal, the OS receives it, and changes it to Ctrl.

OS Level Keymap Problems

OS Level key remapping has complication and doesn't always work.

Here's a list of problems.

• When you use the keyboard on another machine, you need to configure that machine.

• In some app, it may not recognize the key remap by OS. For example, in some PC games, it ignores OS's key-remaps to prevent cheating, or in apps that require privilege such as Microsoft's regedit app. 〔►see Microsoft Windows Registry Tutorial

• When system boots, it doesn't recognize the remap. For example, in Linux bootstrap console or single-user mode. In Microsoft Windows laptop bootscreen, you may need to press a key to go into bios.

OS Level Keymap Software

〔►see AutoHotkey Tutorial

〔►see Linux: xmodmap Tutorial

〔►see Mac: Key Remapping and Keybinding Tools

Firmware Power Levels

Firmware has different levels of power. Here's some differences.

• Most gaming keyboard has pre-set actions and key-remap features. You cannot remap arbitrary keys. For example, you cannot make Space key to do Ctrl.

• On-The-Fly Programing

Some keyboard has On-The-Fly programing. That is, to program the key, you just press buttons. No need to launche a software to program the keys.

This is the best.

Example of such keyboard are:

On-Board Memory vs Cloud

Some keyboard makers force you to have internet connection or install their driver software, in order to use the keyboard as you configured it.

For example,

Razer Orbweaver Keypad forces you to install their “Razer Synapse”. You need to install it, and also register online, and also have internet connection, to use its features fully. 〔►see Razer Orbweaver Keypad

Many models of Corsair's Keyboard require you to have their driver software in order to use the keyboard. In particular, Corsair Gaming STRAFE RGB Keyboard. 〔►see Corsair Keyboards Review

Usually that means the keyboard is not usable in Linux. In some cases, the keyboard does not work at all in linux, or send weird handshake characters when plugged in.

Avoid any Razer or Corsair keyboards.

Logitech gaming keyboards are good. You need to install the Windows software to program the keys. (Mac version is available too) But once keys are configured, you can use the keyboard on any machine without their “driver” software.

For great programable gaming keyboard with full linux compatibility, buy Roccat. Roccat keyboard

Programable Key User Interface

Great programable firmware need a way to program it.

Here are different methods.

logitech gaming keyboard software 84134
Logitech's software for programing the keys. 〔►see Logitech G910 Orion Spark Keyboard
ergodox infinity configurator 2017 03 07
ergodox infinity configurator, as of 2017-03-07.

List of Keyboard with Powerful Firmware

Many expensive keyboards have powerful firmware. For example,

Key Switch Topic

  1. Computer Keyboard Design Flaws
  2. Guide to Keyboard Key Switch Mechanisms
  3. What's NKRO, N-key Rollover?
  4. Blank Keycaps vs Labeled Keys
  5. Keyboard Keycaps: ABS, PBT
  6. Keyboard Key Label Printing Technologies
  7. List of Keyboards with Mechanical Switches
  8. List of Keyboards with Topre Switch
  9. Hall Effect Switch Keyboard
  10. Mechanical Keyboard: Kailh Switch
  11. Does Mechanical Keyboard Reduce Risk of Repetitive Strain Injury?
  12. List of Hardware Dvorak Layout Keyboards