Linux: File/Directory Operations

By Xah Lee. Date: .

List Files

List files in current directory
ls -al
List all files in current dir, including dot files, and also show detail, such as File Permission , owner, and size.
ls -al | grep string
Show file name matching string

Create a new file

touch fileName
Create a new file with empty content. If the file exists already, update its timestamp.

Create a new file link

ln -s newPath existingPath
Create a new file that is a symbolic link (aka soft link) to another file.
(symbolic link is a file whose content is a file path to another file.)
ln newPath existingPath
Create a new file that is a hard link of a file.
(Hard link makes 2 files pointing to the same index in the file system (hard disk).)

Delete File/Dir

rm fileName
Delete a file
rm -r dirName
Delete a directory. (BE CAREFUL)
rmdir dirName
Delete a dir only if it is empty

Create a new dir

mkdir newDirName
Create a new dir

Copy a file/dir

cp fileName newFileName
Copy a file
cp -r dirName newName
Copy a dir

Move/Rename File/Dir

mv fileName newName
Rename file, or move to a diff dir.

Show Dir Size

Linux Shell Basics

Directory and Files

Compress, Archive, Download

Text Processing

User, Group, File Perm


Process, Job Control


Linux Desktop