# Unicode: Math Symbols ∑ ∞ ∫ π ∈ ℝ²

This page shows all math related symbols that exists in Unicode, and are grouped roughly by their purpose.

Commonly used greek letters α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ ς τ υ φ χ ψ ω

(for complete list, see: Unicode: Greek Alphabet α β γ δ ε ζ η.)

superscript ⁰ ¹ ² ³ ⁴ ⁵ ⁶ ⁷ ⁸ ⁹ ⁺ ⁻ ⁼ ⁽ ⁾ ⁿ ⁱ

subscript ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ ₅ ₆ ₇ ₈ ₉ ₊ ₋ ₌ ₍ ₎ ₐ ₑ ₕ ᵢ ⱼ ₖ ₗ ₘ ₙ ₒ ₚ ᵣ ₛ ₜ ᵤ ᵥ ₓ ₔ

Roots √ ∛ ∜

Natural Numbers ℕ, Integers ℤ, Rational Numbers ℚ, Real Numbers ℝ, Complex Numbers ℂ

imaginary number ⅈ, ⅉ

Euler's number, base of natural log ℯ, ⅇ

EULER CONSTANT ℇ

Infinity ∞ ⧜ ⧝ ⧞

multiplication, division × ✕ ✖ ÷

circled {plus, times, …} ⊕ ⊖ ⊗ ⊘ ⊙ ⊚ ⊛ ⊜ ⊝

squared {plus, minus, times, …} ⊞ ⊟ ⊠ ⊡

− ∕ ∗ ∘ ∙ ⋅ ⋆

## Sets

empty set ∅

ℵ

element of ∈ ∋ ∉ ∌ ⋶ ⋽ ⋲ ⋺ ⋳ ⋻

misc ∊ ∍ ⋷ ⋾ ⋴ ⋼ ⋵ ⋸ ⋹ ⫙ ⟒

binary relation of sets. {subset, superset, …} ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇ ⊈ ⊉ ⊊ ⊋ ⊄ ⊅ ⫅ ⫆ ⫋ ⫌ ⫃ ⫄ ⫇ ⫈ ⫉ ⫊ ⟃ ⟄ ⫏ ⫐ ⫑ ⫒ ⫓ ⫔ ⫕ ⫖ ⫗ ⫘ ⋐ ⋑ ⟈ ⟉

Union ∪ ⩁ ⩂ ⩅ ⩌ ⩏ ⩐

Intersection ∩ ⩀ ⩃ ⩄ ⩍ ⩎

Binary operator on sets ∖ ⩆ ⩇ ⩈ ⩉ ⩊ ⩋ ⪽ ⪾ ⪿ ⫀ ⫁ ⫂ ⋒ ⋓

N-nary operator on sets ⋂ ⋃ ⊌ ⊍ ⊎ ⨃ ⨄ ⨅ ⨆

Joins ⨝ ⟕ ⟖ ⟗

## Order

Precede and succeed ≺ ≻ ≼ ≽ ≾ ≿ ⊀ ⊁ ⋞ ⋟ ⋠ ⋡ ⋨ ⋩ ⪯ ⪰ ⪱ ⪲ ⪳ ⪴ ⪵ ⪶ ⪷ ⪸ ⪹ ⪺ ⪻ ⪼

less and greater < > ≮ ≯ ≤ ≥ ≰ ≱ ⪇ ⪈ ≦ ≧ ≨ ≩

less and greater 2 ⋜ ⋝ ⪙ ⪚ ≶ ≷ ≸ ≹ ⋚ ⋛ ⪋ ⪌ ⪑ ⪒ ⪓ ⪔

with approx ⪅ ⪆ ⪉ ⪊

less and greater with equivalence ≲ ≳ ⋦ ⋧ ≴ ≵

less and greater with similarity ⪝ ⪞ ⪟ ⪠ ⪍ ⪎ ⪏ ⪐

less and greater slanted ⩽ ⩾ ⫹ ⫺ ⪕ ⪖ ⪛ ⪜

less and greater misc ⪣ ⪤ ⪥ ⪦ ⪧ ⪨ ⪩ ⪪ ⪫ ⪬ ⪭ ⪡ ⪢ ⫷ ⫸ ⩹ ⩺ ⩻ ⩼ ≪ ≫ ⋘ ⋙ ≬

Order relation with dot ⋖ ⋗ ⩿ ⪀ ⪗ ⪘ ⪁ ⪂ ⪃ ⪄

## Equality, Identity, Equivalence, Approx, Congruence

equality ≝ ≞ ≟ ≠ ∹ ≎ ≏ ⪮ ≐ ≑ ≒ ≓ ≔ ≕ ≖ ≗ ≘ ≙ ≚ ≛ ≜ ⩬ ⩭ ⩮ ⩱ ⩲ ⩦ ⩴ ⩵ ⩶ ⩷

Identity ≡ ≢ ⩧

Equivalence ≍ ≭ ≣ ⩸

Approx/almost/asymptotic equality ≁ ≂ ≃ ≄ ⋍ ≅ ≆ ≇ ≈ ≉ ≊ ≋ ≌ ⩯ ⩰

Misc equality ∻

Misc relations ⊏ ⊐ ⊑ ⊒ ⊓ ⊔ ⋢ ⋣ ⋤ ⋥ ⫴ ⫵

Normal subgroups ⊲ ⊳ ⊴ ⊵ ⋪ ⋫ ⋬ ⋭

## Logic

Logic ¬ ⫬ ⫭ ⊨ ⊭ ∀ ∁ ∃ ∄ ∴ ∵ ⊦ ⊬ ⊧ ⊩ ⊮ ⊫ ⊯ ⊪ ⊰ ⊱

Logic binary ∧ ∨ ⊻ ⊼ ⊽ ⋎ ⋏ ⟑ ⟇ ⩑ ⩒ ⩓ ⩔ ⩕ ⩖ ⩗ ⩘ ⩙ ⩚ ⩛ ⩜ ⩝ ⩞ ⩟ ⩠ ⩢ ⩣ ⨇ ⨈

Logic n-nary ⋀ ⋁

## Geometry

Geometry ∣ ∤ ⫮ ⌅ ⌆ ℓ ⫛

Ratio, proportion ∝ ∶ ∷ ∺

Parallel, perpendicular ∥ ∦ ⫲ ⫳ ⋕ ⟂ ⫡

Right angle ⦜ ∟ ⊾ ⦝ ⊿

Angles ∠ ∡ ⦛ ⦞ ⦟ ⦢ ⦣ ⦤ ⦥ ⦦ ⦧ ⦨ ⦩ ⦪ ⦫ ⦬ ⦭ ⦮ ⦯ ⦓ ⦔ ⦕ ⦖ ⟀

Spherical angle ∢ ⦠ ⦡

## Operators

Bracket operators ⌈ ⌉ ⌊ ⌋ ⫍ ⫎

integrals ∫ ∬ ∭ ∮ ∯ ∰ ∱ ∲ ∳ ⨋ ⨌ ⨍ ⨎ ⨏ ⨐ ⨑ ⨒ ⨓ ⨔ ⨕ ⨖ ⨗ ⨘ ⨙ ⨚ ⨛ ⨜

Derivative ∂ ′ ″ ‴ ∆

vector ⨯ ∇ ⊹

Tilde Operators ∼ ∽ ⩪ ⩫ ⩳

Misc Operators ⋄ ⫶ ⫼ ⫾

Misc products ≀ ⨿ ⨼ ⨽ ⧢ ⋉ ⋊ ⋋ ⋌

n-nary sum ∑ ⨊ ⨁

n-nary product ⨀ ⨂ ∏ ∐ ⨉

## Misc

Mathematica ⧴

Plus ⨢ ⨣ ⨤ ⨥ ⨦ ⨧ ⨨ ⨭ ⨮

∔ ⧺ ⧻

minus sign ∸ ⨩ ⨪ ⨫ ⨬

multiplication, product ⨰ ⨱ ⨲ ⨳

division ⋇ ⟌ ⟠

Misc indicators ∎ ± ∓ ⋮ ⋯ ⋰ ⋱

Misc symbols ∿

Tacks ⊣ ⊢ ⊥ ⊤ ⟘ ⟙ ⟛ ⟝ ⟞ ⟟ ⫧ ⫨ ⫩ ⫪ ⫫ ⫞ ⫟ ⫠

Turnstiles ⫢ ⫣ ⫤ ⫥ ⟚

Z notation ⦁ ⦂ ⨾ ⨟ ⨠ ⨡ ⩤ ⩥ ⦇ ⦈ ⦉ ⦊

Solidus, slash ⧵ ⧶ ⧷ ⧸ ⫽ ⫻ ⧹

maps, mapping, transform ⊶ ⊷ ⊸ ⟜ ⧟

empty set ⦰ ⦱ ⦲ ⦳ ⦴

Unsorted ⦵ ⦶ ⦷ ⦸ ⦹ ⦺ ⦻ ⨴ ⨵ ⨶ ⨷ ⨸ ⦼

Unsorted ⦽ ⧀ ⧁ ⧂ ⧃

Unsorted ⧡ ⧣ ⧤ ⧥ ⧦ ⧧

Unsorted ⧾ ⨞ ⧊ ⧋ ⧌ ⧍ ⨹ ⨺ ⨻

Unsorted ⧎ ⧏ ⧐ ⩡ ⩨ ⩩ ⫝̸ ⫝ ⫦

⫯ ⫰ ⫱

Unsorted ∾ ⊺ ⋔ ⫚ ⟊ ⟔ ⟓ ⟡ ⟢ ⟣ ⟤ ⟥

## What Chars Are Included

These are roughly all math symbols under the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP). A symbol is considered a math symbol if its Unicode name indicate so, or, it is widely recognized as a math symbol (⁖ ℝ ⅈ π). The total number of chars on this page is about 766.

For arrows and bracketing chars, if a char's Unicode name does not explicitly indicate that it is a operator or math symbol, they are not included here. For a list of them, see:

- Unicode: Arrow Symbols ← → ↑ ↓
- Unicode: Brackets, Quotes «»「」【】《》
- Unicode: Box Lines, Shapes ┌ ┬ ┐
- Unicode Geometric Shapes ◰ ▥ ◧ ◩ ◴ ◐ ◖ ⋈ ⬢
- APL Programing Language Symbols

There are more math symbols but are outside of BMP. In particular, there are several complete set of styled English alphabet, such as double-struck chars (ℂ ℝ ⅈ ⅉ) gothic-styled letters (ℭ ℑ ℌ ℜ ℨ), scripted letter forms (ℓ ℱ ℒ ℛ).

For a complete list, see:

- Math Font, Unicode, Gothic Letters, Double Struck, ℤ ℚ ℝ ℂ ℜ ℑ ℵ
- Unicode: Greek Alphabet α β γ δ ε ζ η

## Unicode Character Shows Blank, Question Mark, Gibberish

Unicode Character Shows Blank, Question Mark, Gibberish

## Unicode Names for Symbol's Meaning

The symbols are roughly grouped by purpose, and with respect to the symbol's semantics, as opposed to their appearance.

For example, there are many similar looking symbols, and in different fonts they may look different or identical. Example:

- ~ TILDE
- ∼ TILDE OPERATOR
- ∽ REVERSED TILDE
- 〜 WAVE DASH
- ∿ SINE WAVE
- ≈ ALMOST EQUAL TO

Another example:

- ⩳ EQUALS SIGN ABOVE TILDE OPERATOR
- ≌ ALL EQUAL TO
- ⩯ ALMOST EQUAL TO WITH CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
- ⩰ APPROXIMATELY EQUAL OR EQUAL TO

The Unicode names give indication of the symbol's meaning. There are some 20 more symbols that's made up wavy line(s) and or horizontal line(s). When you choose a symbol, your choice should be based on the symbol's meaning according to the symbol's Unicode name, when possible. Because what you see as rendered by a font may be very different from another font, and often font designers simply got the shape wrong, especially for less common chars.

## Formal Language, not Glyphs with no Grammar

Also, i've organized these symbols with respect to possible use in calculational proof styled notation and formal languages. ➢ for example: use in computer proof languages (➢ for example: Hol, Coq, Isabelle, Haskell, OCaml, F Sharp) or computer algebra systems (➢ for example: Mathematica), or manually created notations for humans following the calculational proof perspective. In such systems, symbols have a precise syntax and semantics. They are parsed by a compiler. In the case of “calculational proof” notation, the symbols are used in a more consistent way. This is in contrast to traditional math notation (➢ for example: most journals or text books produced by TeX/LaTeX) where the symbols serve as a pictures arranged in special positions and sizes for human communication. Their meaning are based on context and convention.

- State of Theorem Proving Systems 2008
- The Problems of Traditional Math Notation
- The TeX Pestilence (Why TeX/LaTeX Sucks)