Unicode: Math Symbols ∑ ∞ ∫ π ∈ ℝ²

, , …,
Unicode Search

This page shows all math related symbols that exists in Unicode, and are grouped roughly by their purpose.

Some Greeks α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ ς τ υ φ χ ψ ω

superscript ¹ ² ³

subscript

Roots

Sets

Constants

multiplication, division × ÷

circled {plus, times, …}

squared {plus, minus, times, …}

Sets

element of

misc

binary relation of sets. {subset, superset, …}

Union

Intersection

Binary operator on sets ⪿

N-nary operator on sets

Joins

Order

Precede and succeed

less and greater < >

less and greater 2

with approx

less and greater with equivalence

less and greater with similarity

less and greater slanted

less and greater misc

Order relation with dot ⩿

Equality, Identity, Equivalence, Approx, Congruence

equality

Identity

Equivalence

Approx/almost/asymptotic equality

Misc equality

Misc relations

Normal subgroups

Logic

Logic ¬

Logic binary

Logic n-nary

Geometry

Geometry

Ratio, proportion

Parallel, perpendicular

Right angle

Angles

Spherical angle

Operators

Bracket operators

integrals

Derivative

vector

Tilde Operators

Misc Operators

Misc products ⨿

n-nary sum

n-nary product

Misc

Mathematica

Plus

minus sign

multiplication, product

division

Misc indicators ±

Misc symbols

Tacks

Turnstiles

Z notation

Solidus, slash

maps, mapping, transform

empty set

Unsorted

Unsorted

Unsorted

Unsorted

Unsorted

Unsorted

What Chars Are Included

These are roughly all math symbols under the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP). A symbol is considered a math symbol if its Unicode name indicate so, or, it is widely recognized as a math symbol (⁖ π). The total number of chars on this page is about 766.

For arrows and bracketing chars, if a char's Unicode name does not explicitly indicate that it is a operator or math symbol, they are not included here. For a list of them, see:

There are more math symbols but are outside of BMP. In particular, there are several complete A to z sets of styled englesh letters, such as double-struck chars ( ) gothic-styled letters ( ), scripted letter forms ( ). You can see some discussion here: Math Font, Unicode, Gothic Letters, Double Struck.

Note: this page will be improved over the coming months. The bunch of less used misc symbols at the bottom can be organized more into different categories.

Unicode Character Shows Blank, Question Mark, or Gibberish

How to Find the Code Point?

Emacs is a excellent tool for finding out Unicode's character code or as a Unicode char browser. See:

Unicode Names for Symbol's Meaning

The symbols are roughly grouped by purpose, and with respect to the symbol's semantics, as opposed to their appearance.

For example, there are many similar looking symbols, and in different fonts they may look different or identical. Example:

Another example:

The Unicode names give indication of the symbol's meaning. There are some 20 more symbols that's made up wavy line(s) and or horizontal line(s). When you choose a symbol, your choice should be based on the symbol's meaning according to the symbol's Unicode name, when possible. Because what you see as rendered by a font may be very different from another font, and often font designers simply got the shape wrong, especially for less common chars.

Formal Language, not Glyphs with no Grammar

Also, i've organized these symbols with respect to possible use in calculational proof styled notation and formal language. ⁖ use in computer proof languages (⁖ Hol, Coq, Isabelle, OCaml) or computer algebra systems (⁖ Mathematica), or manually created notations for humans following the calculational proof perspective. In such systems, symbols have a precise syntax and semantics. They are parsed by a compiler. In the case of “calculational proof” notation, the symbols are used in a more consistent way. This is in contrast to traditional math notation (⁖ most journals or text books produced by TeX/LaTeX) where the symbols serve as a pictures arranged in special positions and sizes for human communication. Their meaning are based on context and traditional understanding, and do not have a grammar. See:

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