JavaScript: Allowed Characters in Identifier

By Xah Lee. Date: . Last updated: .

What is allowed characters in JavaScript identifiers?

JavaScript identifiers (variable/function names) must:

ECMAScript 2015 §ECMAScript Language: Lexical Grammar#sec-names-and-keywords

Here's a example you can test:

// α GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA codepoint 945, x3b1
const α = 4;
console.log(α);
// ok
// ♥ BLACK HEART SUIT codepoint 9829, hexadecimal 2665
// is not a letter
const ♥ = 3;
// SyntaxError: Invalid or unexpected token

(To search for Unicode, or find a character's codepoint, see: Unicode Search 😄.)

What characters are Unicode Letter?

A “Unicode Letter” is a character whose Unicode property “general category”'s major value is “L”. In general, language's alphabets are Unicode letters, and Chinese characters are also Unicode Letter.

Examples of characters that's not Unicode letter: digits, punctuations, math symbols, emoji.

How to determine if a character is a Unicode Letter?

You can find out whether a Unicode char is a letter using Python. See: Python: Get Unicode Name, Codepoint

Or in emacs, place cursor on (or before) the char, then M-x “describe-char”, then read the line “general-category”. [see Emacs: Unicode Tutorial]

HTML/CSS Case Sensitivity

HTML/CSS Case Sensitivity

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